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Introduction of battery types

1. Primary batteries: Disposable and can not be used repeatedly

Carbon zinc batteries, alkaline batteries, paste zinc manganese batteries, cardboard zinc manganese batteries, alkaline zinc manganese batteries, button batteries (button zinc silver batteries, button lithium manganese batteries, button zinc manganese batteries), zinc-air batteries, primary lithium manganese batteries, etc., mercury batteries.

According to the use of the isolation layer is divided into paste and plate batteries, and plate batteries are divided into C-type (ammonium) and P-type (zinc) cardboard batteries according to different electrolyte liquid.

The traditional paste type zinc-manganese dry cell battery adopts the natural manganese dioxide with lower activity as the cathode material, the isolation layer is the paste isolation layer of starch and flour, the electrolyte is the aqueous solution of ammonium chloride and zinc chloride based on H4CL, and the cathode is a zinc cylinder, its discharge performance is generally poor, its capacity is low, and the battery is prone to leakage at the end of service, but the price is cheap.

C-type (ammonium) cardboard battery is based on the paste type battery with pulp layer paper instead of paste paper, not only the positive electrode filling capacity is increased by about 30%, but also 30-70% high activity manganese instead of natural manganese, so the capacity can be increased and the range of use can be expanded, mostly used for small current discharge occasions, such as clocks, remote control, radio, flashlight and other occasions.

P-type (zinc) cardboard battery adopts zinc chloride as the main electrolyte, and all the cathode materials are made of high activity manganese powder, such as electrolytic manganese, active manganese, etc. Its leak-proof performance is much higher than that of paste and C-type battery.

Cylindrical alkaline zinc-manganese battery alkaline battery, also known as alkaline manganese battery, is the best performance of the zinc-manganese battery series. The battery uses aqueous solution of potassium hydroxide (KOH) or sodium hydroxide (NaOH) as electrolyte liquid, and adopts the opposite cathode structure with zinc-manganese battery, the cathode inside is paste-like colloid with copper nail as collector, the positive pole outside, the active material and conductive material are pressed into a ring to connect with the battery shell, and the positive and negative poles are separated by a special diaphragm.

The casing is generally made of 08F nickel-plated steel strip by cold-rolling and stamping, and is also used as the positive collector, the positive electrolytic manganese dioxide material is pressed into a ring close to the inner wall of the column to ensure good contact, and the negative electrode is made of powdered zinc particles and paste in the middle of the battery, with the negative collector inserted between it (the negative electrode is generally a copper nail), and the collector is connected to the bottom of the negative electrode. The battery is separated by a nylon or polypropylene sealing ring, and the battery is almost identical to the general battery.

2. Secondary battery: rechargeable and reusable.

Secondary alkaline zinc-manganese battery, nickel-cadmium rechargeable battery, nickel-metal hydride rechargeable battery, lithium rechargeable battery, lead-acid battery, solar battery. Lead-acid batteries can be divided into open-type lead-acid batteries, fully enclosed lead-acid batteries.

Ni-Cd(Ni-Cd)chemicalbatteries(secONdarybatteries)

Nickel-metal hydride Ni-MH

Li-ion,lithiumbatteries

lead-acid batteries

Other

physicalenergy

Solarcellbatteries

microbial cell

Polymer batteries

Any kind of battery consists of four basic parts, four important parts are two different materials of electrode, electrolyte, separator and shell.

3. Green battery

It refers to a kind of high-performance, non-polluting batteries that have been put into use or are being developed in recent years, including nickel metal hydride batteries and lithium-ion batteries that have been put into use, alkaline mercury-free zinc-manganese primary batteries that are being promoted for use, fuel-powered batteries and solar cells (photovoltaic cells).

4.Lead-acid batteries

In 1859, Plante (France) discovered that a battery consists of five basic parts, including a positive plate, a negative plate, an electrolyte, a separator, and a container (battery tank). The battery is made of lead dioxide as positive active substance, lead as negative active substance, sulfuric acid as electrolyte, and microporous rubber, sintered polyvinyl chloride, glass fiber, polypropylene, etc. as separator.

5.Nickel cadmium batteries and metal hydride batteries

Both use nickel oxide or nickel hydroxide as the positive electrode, aqueous potassium hydroxide or sodium hydroxide as the electrolyte solution, and cadmium metal or metal hydride as the negative electrode. Metal hydride batteries were invented at the end of 1980s by using the electrochemical reversibility of the reaction between hydrogen absorbing alloy and hydrogen releasing, and are the leading products of small secondary batteries.

6.Lithium ion battery

Batteries that use lithium metal or lithium compounds as the active material are commonly known as lithium ion batteries, and are divided into primary lithium ion batteries and secondary lithium ion batteries.

It is a battery made of carbon materials that can embed and de-embed lithium ions instead of pure lithium as the negative electrode, lithium compounds as the positive electrode, and mixed electrolyte liquid as the electrolyte liquid.

Lithium ion battery cathode material is usually lithium active compound composition, the cathode is a special molecular structure of carbon. When charging, the potential applied to the two poles of the battery forces the positive compound to release lithium ions, which are embedded in the carbon of the negative molecule arranged in a lamellar structure. When discharged, the lithium ions are precipitated from the carbon in the lamellar structure and combine with the compound of the positive electrode again. By the movement of the lithium ion, an electric current appears.

Although the chemical reaction principle is very simple, however, in the actual industrial production, there are many practical issues to consider: the material of the positive electrode should be additive to maintain the activity of multiple charge and discharge, the material of the negative electrode should be designed at the molecular structure level to accommodate more lithium ions; the electrolyte filled between the positive and negative electrode, in addition to maintaining stability, but also has a good electrical conductivity, in order to reduce the internal resistance of the battery.

Although lithium-ion batteries have almost no memory effect, but, lithium-ion battery capacity will still be reduced after multiple charges, the important reason is the anode and cathode material itself changes. From the molecular level, the cavity structure on the anode to accommodate lithium ions will gradually collapse, blocked; from a chemical point of view, the anode and cathode material activity passivation, a side reaction to generate stable other compounds. Physically, there will also be a gradual peeling of the cathode material, etc., in short, eventually reducing the number of lithium ions in the battery can be free to move in the charging and discharging process.

Overcharging and overdischarge will cause permanent damage to the anode and cathode of the lithium-ion battery, from the molecular level, it can be intuitively understood that overdischarge will lead to excessive release of lithium ions from the cathode carbon and make its lamellar structure collapse, overcharging will force too many lithium ions into the cathode carbon structure to go, and make some of the lithium ions can no longer be released. This is why lithium ion batteries are usually equipped with charge and discharge control circuit.

7. Fuel Power Battery

A device that uses a direct connection between a fuel (e.g. hydrogen or hydrogen-containing fuel) and an oxidizer (e.g. pure oxygen or oxygen in air) to generate electricity. It has a high efficiency, an electrochemical reaction conversion efficiency of 40% or more, and no polluting gas emissions.

Every time you use the walkie-talkie battery that has been out of use for more than 2 months, it should be completely discharged and then completely charged.

Nickel Chromium battery (NickelCadmium) or Nickel Hydride battery (NickeMetalHydride) charge 14-16 hours.

Lithium ion battery and lithium polymer battery (Lithiumlon/polymer): the first charge when the indicator light turns green and then charged for 1-2 hours.

Translated with http://www.DeepL.com/Translator (free version)

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