**How to calculate the theoretical capacity of battery electrode materials**

The theoretical capacity of a battery electrode material can be estimated using the relation:

$\frac{xF}{M}$
where *F* is the Faraday constant, *x* is the number of faradays involved in the reaction, and *M* is the molar mass of the material.

Hence, according to Eq.1, the theoretical charge or discharge capacity of LiCoO_{2} can be calculated to be 274 mAh/g, using 1.0, 26.80 Ah/mol, and 97.87 g/mol for *x*, *F* and *M*, respectively.

$LiCo{O}_{2}\leftrightarrow L{i}_{\mathit{1}\mathit{\u2013}x}Co{O}_{2}+x{\mathrm{Li}}^{+}+x{\mathrm{e}}^{\u2013}...............................\left(1\right)$
Likewise, according to Eq.2, the theoretical charge or discharge capacity of graphite (C) can be calculated to be 372 mAh/g, using 1/6, 26.80 Ah/mol, and 12 g/mol for *x*, *F* and *M*, respectively.

$C\mathit{}+\mathit{}xL{i}^{\mathit{+}}\mathit{}+\mathit{}x{e}^{\mathit{\u2013}}\mathit{}\mathit{\leftrightarrow}\mathit{}L{i}_{x}C\mathit{}\mathit{.}\mathit{.}\mathit{.}\mathit{.}\mathit{.}\mathit{.}\mathit{.}\mathit{.}\mathit{.}\mathit{.}\mathit{.}\mathit{.}\mathit{.}\mathit{.}\mathit{.}\mathit{.}\mathit{.}\mathit{.}\mathit{.}\mathit{.}\mathit{.}\mathit{.}\mathit{.}\mathit{.}\mathit{.}\mathit{.}\mathit{.}\mathit{.}\mathit{.}\mathit{.}\mathit{.}\mathit{.}\mathit{.}\mathit{.}\mathit{.}\mathit{.}\mathit{.}\mathit{.}\mathit{.}\mathit{.}\mathit{.}\mathit{\left(}\mathit{2}\mathit{\right)}$